This database was built to summarize all known large earthquakes with a magnitude larger or equal 8. For the historical part, it was built based on the Global Historic Earthquake Archive (GHEA), but significantly extended. It is supposed to help identifying regions with extensive earthquake and tsunami hazards. Especially historic and paleo-earthquakes are prone to major uncertainties. Different authors come to different conclusions. Thus references to each magnitude and location estimate are provided and compared.

Here, we also provide a preferred magnitude estimate and also start providing models for ground motion and tsunami wave heights.

We also include earthquakes which have been estimated to be larger 8 even though, by current knowledge, their preferred magnitude estimate is smaller.

Historic Events (work in progress)

Date Title Region Preferred Magnitude Quality*
1950 Aug 15th, 14:09 1950 Assam Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8.6 A
1934 Jan 15th, 08:43 1934 Bihar Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8.4 A
1907 Jan 04th, 05:19 1907 Sumatra Earthquake Sumatra-Andaman 8.3 B
1897 Jun 12th 1897 Shillong Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8.2 B
1761 Dec 09th, 17:20 1761 Altai Earthquake Mongolia 7.7 C
1761 Mar 31st, 12:15 1761 Cabo San Vicente Earthquake Iberia Margin 7.5 C
1755 Nov 01st 1755 Lisbon Earthquake Iberia Margin 8.7 B
1751 May 25th, 05:30 1751 Concepcion Earthquake Chile 8.8 C
1746 Oct 29th, 03:30 1746 Lima Callao Earthquake Peru 9 B
1739 Jan 03rd 1739 Pingluo Earthquake Ningxia 8 C
1737 Oct 17th, 15:30 1737 Kamchatka Earthquake Kamchatka 9 C
1730 Jul 08th, 04:30 1730 Valparaiso Earthquake Chile 8.7 C
1717s 1717 Alpine Fault Earthquake Alpine Fault 8.1 D
1715 Aug 23rd 1715 Iquique Earthquake Iquique 7.8 C
1714 May 04th 1714 Bhutan Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8.1 C
1707 Oct 28th, 14:00 1707 Hoei Earthquake Nankaido 8.7 C
1703 Dec 13th 1703 Kanto Earthquake Sagami 8.2 C
1700 Jan 27th 1700 Cascadia Earthquake Cascadia 9 B
1695 May 18th 1695 Shaanxi Earthquake Shaanxi 7.8 C
1690 Apr 05th 1690 Lesser Antilles Earthquake Lesser Antilles 7.5 C
1687 Oct 20th, 10:30 1687 Peru Earthquake Peru 8.6 C
1679 Sep 02nd 1679 Hebei Earthquake East China 8 C
1679s 1679 Andaman Earthquake Sumatra-Andaman 8 D
1677 Nov 04th 1677 Kanto Earthquake Honshu 8.4 C
1677 Apr 13th 1677 Sanriku Earthquake Hokkaido 7.9 C
1668 Jul 25th 1668 Tancheng Earthquake East China 8.5 C
1657 Mar 15th 1657 Chile Earthquake Chile 8 C
1647 May 13th, 22:30 1647 Valparaiso Earthquake Chile 8.5 C
1629 Aug 01st, 01:30 1629 Seram Earthquake Seram 8.8 D
1627 1627 Luzon Earthquake Luzon 8 D
1619 Feb 14th, 16:30 1619 Peru Earthquake Peru 7.7 C
1611 Dec 02nd 1611 Keicho Earthquake Hokkaido 8.5 C
1609 Oct 20th, 01:00 1609 Peru Earthquake Peru 7.4 C
1605 Feb 03rd, 20:00 1605 Keicho Earthquake Nankaido 7.9 C
1604 Dec 29th 1604 Quanzhou Earthquake Taiwan Strait 8.1 B
1604 Nov 24th, 18:30 1604 Iquique Earthquake Iquique 8.5 C
1600 Feb 28th 1600 Peru Earthquake Peru 8.1 C
1586 Jul 10th, 00:30 1586 Lima Earthquake Peru 8.6 C
1586s 1586 Aleutian Earthquake Aleutian Islands 9.3 D
1584 Mar 17th 1584 Lima Earthquake Peru 8.4 C
1582 Jan 22nd 1582 Peru Earthquake Peru 7.8 D
1575 Dec 16th, 18:30 1575 Valdivia Earthquake Chile 8.5 C
1570 Feb 08th, 09:00 1570 Concepcion Earthquake Chile 8 C
1556 1556 Shaanxi Earthquake Shaanxi 8 C
1555 Nov 15th 1555 Lima Earthquake Peru 8.4 C
1555 1555 Kashmir Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 7.8 C
1543 1543 Iquique Earthquake Iquique 8 D
1530 Sep 01st, 14:30 1530 El Pilar Earthquake Venezuela 7.3 C
1530s 16th Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.7 D
1513 1513 Iquique Earthquake Iquique 8.7 C
1505 Sep 24th 1505 Nepal Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8.6 C
1498 1498 Meio earthquake Nankaido 8.3 B
1471 1471 Peru Earthquake Peru 8 C
1460s 1460 Wellington Earthquake Alpine Fault 8 C
1460s 15th Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.2 D
1454 1454 Honshu Earthquake Honshu 8.4 C
1411 Oct 08th, 05:00 1411 Tibet Earthquake Himalaya 8 B
1400s 15th Century Nepal Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8.2 D
1400s 15th Century Sumatra-Andaman Paleo-Earthquake Sumatra-Andaman 9 D
1394s 1394 Sumatra Earthquake Sumatra-Andaman 8.3 D
1361 Jul 26th 1361 Nankaido Earthquake Nankaido 8.4 C
1344 Sep 14th 1344 Nepal Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 7.9 C
1320s 14th Century Chile Paleo-Earthquake Chile 8.8 D
1303 Sep 25th 1303 Hongdong Earthquake Shaanxi 7.5 C
1303 Sep 17th, 03:30 1303 Crete Earthquake Hellenic Arc 8.3 B
1293 May 20th 1293 Nankaido Earthquake Nankaido 8 D
1255 Jun 07th 1255 Nepal Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8 C
1220s 12th Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.9 D
1150s 12th Century Hokkaido Paleo-Earthquake Hokkaido 7.9 D
1120s 12th Century Chile Paleo-Earthquake Chile 8.8 D
1100s 12th Century Himalaya Earthquake Himalaya Megathrust 8.8 D
1099 Feb 16th 1099 Nankaido Earthquake Nankaido 8.2 C
1096 Dec 17th 1096 Nankaido Earthquake Nankaido 8.3 C
1076 1076 Manila Trench Earthquake South China Sea 8.8 D
1040s 10th Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.3 D
958 Feb 23rd 958 Iran Earthquake Iran 8 C
950s 10th Century Sumatra-Andaman Paleo-Earthquake Sumatra-Andaman 9 D
887 Aug 17th 887 Nankaido Earthquake Nankaido 8.6 C
869 Jul 09th 869 Jogan Earthquake Honshu 8.8 C
859 Apr 08th 859 Dead Sea Earthquake Dead Sea Fault Zone 7.9 C
856 Dec 22nd 856 Iran Earthquake Iran 7.9 C
770s 8th Century Valdivia Paleo-Earthquake Chile 9 D
770s 8th Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.9 D
684 Nov 29th 684 Nankaido Earthquake Nankaido 8.4 C
620s 620 Valdivia Paleo-Earthquake Chile 8.5 D
590s 6th Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.3 D
526 May 29th 526 Antioch Earthquake Dead Sea Fault Zone 7.3 C
450s 4th Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.8 D
447 Jan 26th 447 Marmara Earthquake Marmara Sea 8 C
365 Sep 21st 365 Crete Earthquake Hellenic Arc 8.4 B
314 Apr 01st 314 Rhodes Earthquake Hellenic Arc 8 C
190s 2nd Century Cascadia Paleo-Earthquake Cascadia 8.4 D

*Quality of evidence indicates how well the event has been described in literature and scientific records.

  • A: Instrumental records
  • B: Paleo seismic records, historic evidence and a large number of scientific studies.
  • C: Some paleo seismic and historic records, limited number of scientific studies.
  • D: Very limited number of scientific studies, only some paleo seismic or historic evidence.